A typical drone (or rather an unmanned aerial vehicle, because that is how such structures should be called) is made of very light composite materials whose task is to reduce the weight and increase the maneuverability of the device. Composite materials with increased durability allow, in the case of military drones, to reach very high heights. Drones are equipped with the latest technology, such as infrared cameras, GPS or even lasers and can be controlled remotely or using a cockpit located on the ground.
We can meet with a lot of variety when it comes to the dimensions of the drone itself. Large drones with a huge payload, such as the Predator, are used in the military, others, smaller, can take off directly from the hand, others will require a special place for take off and landing. The unmanned aerial vehicle system consists of two parts: the drone itself and the control system.
On the front of the drone we will find all sensors and navigation systems. The entire remaining area can be freely used due to the fact that the drone does not need additional space for people who would control the model in the air. The materials used for the construction of drones are high-quality composite materials that are able to absorb vibrations and at the same time reduce noise generated during the flight.
Let’s take a look at the technology behind the flagship UAV models. This will give us an overview of the individual elements included in professional flying models.
Positioning and return to base function
The flight radar and the control panel / rc instrument display the current position of the model in relation to the pilot. After exceeding the range (losing control of the controlled model), the return to take-off function is automatically activated, which means that the model will automatically return to the take-off point and land safely.
Gyroscope, flight controller
Gyro stabilization is one of the elements enabling smooth flight of the model. The gyroscope immediately reacts to all forces affecting the model in the air and stabilizes its movements, providing the necessary navigation information to the flight controller.
The Integrated Unit of Computing Unit (IMU) performs calculations based on the actual acceleration based on one or more accelerometers. The IMU detects changes in rotational attributes such as pitch, roll, and yaw using one or more gyroscopes. Some IMUs use a magnetometer to help calibrate the model. The gyroscope is a constituent element of the IMU, while the IMU is a key component of the flight controller, i.e. the entire brain of the unmanned aerial vehicle.
Flight parameters on the screen
Most advanced designs allow flight telemetry directly on the screen of a mobile device (smartphone, tablet). Prohibited areas of flight. In order to increase flight safety and avoid air accidents in limited flight areas, the drone software uses the “No Fly Zone” function, which effectively prevents the model from flying into the prohibited zone. Therefore, flight within airports, runways, military bases etc. will not be possible.